الخميس، 3 أكتوبر 2019

Method of basil cultivationPosted by

harvest Basil can be harvested by

removing the leaves from the plant, or the whole plant can be removed if too many leaves are needed to make sauces, but if a few leaves are needed, only the heads of the plant can be removed,

to promote the growth
Take care of the plant Soil moisture should be preserved , but should not be flooded with water, as basil grows well in well-drained soil, and should not be exposed to stagnant water.Mature basil should be irrigated once a day.This is recommended in the morning, 


so that there is sufficient time To absorb and evaporate the water, the flowering heads should be eliminated, as well as two pairs of leaves underneath, as the blooming flowers significantly reduce the flavor of the leaves, as well as reduce the amount of foliage that grows.This happens when additional sunlight is present
Cultivation of basil seedlings You can plant basil with seedlings, you should use 10 cm basil seedlings, then remove the leaves from the seedlings of basil about 5 cm from the end of the seedlings.



 It is recommended to use transparent glass to be able to see the growth of basil roots.Water should be changed every few days so that the person can see the root growth, and wait until the roots grow to about 5 centimeters.This may take two to four weeks.Once Root reaches this length, seedlings can be planted in a pot Inside the house,



 so that it is placed in a place where sunlight is directly 
Cultivation of basil seeds When planting basil seeds, make sure to place them in an area exposed to the sun for 6-8 hours per day.The soil pH should be neutral, until the basil grows best,



 then plant the seeds in a row, and cover the seeds with about 6.3 centimeters of soil. For the plant to grow to a few centimeters, it should be kept about

How to grow mushrooms at homeBy

Pests and diseases of the

fungus You can get mushroom plants with many pests and diseases, and Prevention is the best way to control these pests, and therefore must clean growth area well and use the tools of agriculture and fertilizer clean pure non - polluting and bacteria,



as can be in the event of any symptoms and the presence of a pest or controlled disease immediately Through the safe spraying of the fungus, herbal sprayers can be used any made of herbs, as it is considered safe and can be sprayed mushrooms out and then
Growing mushrooms at home The fungus can be grown in a basin and then raise the area temperature to 21 ° C, and within three weeks the seeds can be rooted and once this occurs the temperature should be reduced to 13-16 ° C, then cover the seeds with organic soil and cover the soil with a damp cloth and spray cloth with water whenever dried up , 



[1] Once the production of spores of the fungus and the emergence of white fungus small , it can be wetting the room and keep the temperature between 18-30 ° C to help the fungus on the optimal growth, after nearly a week is considered mushrooms ready for harvest, 



and can be harvested by hand Remove it from the trunk and avoid cutting the mushroom with a knife NH is possible to prevent the fungus from growing again. [
Choose mushroom type You can start growing mushrooms at home by choosing the type of mushrooms to be grown, and the most popular options when growing mushrooms home are Shiitake mushrooms, 


oyster mushrooms and white mushrooms, and then you must buy seeds and spores of mushrooms, and can be grown mushrooms in different ways depending on the different development media for each For example, shiitake mushrooms usually grow on hardwoods or on hardwood sawdust, 



and oyster mushrooms can grow on straw and white mushrooms grow in organic manure

How to plant my garden properlyBy

Care of plants after planting It is advisable to consult an agricultural engineer for advice on what to do if the owner of the garden has no experience or idea of ​​how to care for the plant.It is necessary to remove weeds that grow around the roots of plants,



where these weeds take their nutrition from the soil at the expense of planted plants
Plants differ from each other in terms of the amount of water they need.



 Watering the seeds is different from watering the seedlings. The first stages of plant growth are sensitive to the surrounding factors, which leads to the death of seeds sometimes if water and fertilizer exceeds their need
Soil processing The soil is prepared by plowing it according to its design,



 and the soil equation is alkaline and acidic so that the medium is suitable for the growth of plants, then the seeds or seedlings are placed in the soil at a suitable depth to feed well and grow unimpeded, in addition to leaving enough distance between garden plants, so as not to The roots are intertwined, 



and the consequent inability of plants to take their soil needs
Processing tools for agriculture Since there is talk of a home garden, the tools for planting are simple and easily available: seedlings, seeds, manure, tools used to plow and stir the soil,



 such as an ax, a shovel, and a water hose for
Garden design After selecting the suitable place for planting should be planned for the final shape to be the garden, but it must be kept in mind to leave enough distance between each plant and plant, so that each one needs its elements of soil, water, and it should be taken into account the dates of planting,



 to be
Choose the right place for planting All plants need three prerequisites for their success and survival, regardless of the environment conditions they require.These conditions are: Irrigation and watering of plants on a regular basis. The area is well exposed to the sun, so the farmer should consider not planting in an area 
Nothing is more wonderful than planting a home garden with various types of plants that give comfort and tranquility to the same beholder,


 regardless of the reason why the owner planted it, it may be the goal is to beautify the view of the house, or provide natural foods that meet part of the daily need of family members Determining the purpose of planting helps to determine what plants are to be planted, what is needed for planting, and how to 

How to plant black beanBy

The benefits of black bean Black seed is used in the treatment of colds and asthma. 



Black seed is useful in the treatment of prostate diseases in men. Used in the treatment of headaches. Used in the treatment of hemorrhoids.

Very useful in the treatment of pimples and pills in the skin.



Helps purify skin Black seed has an effective role in preventing hair loss and protecting hair from breakage and split ends
Preparing the land to be planted in the black seed by plowing it twice vertically. Removing weeds and harmful plants.




 Plan the soil or soil to be planted black seed in the form of pupils or lines. Fertilizing the soil well in measured proportions, for example, one acre needs 200 grams of calcium superphosphate, 50 grams of agricultural sulfur, and my fertilizer. 



Then we make gaps in the receipt or the lines that we made so that the distance between each hole and the other about 25 cm. Keep in each jar of 4_5. 



Seeds of black bean It is very important to irrigate the seeds that have been planted immediately after planting. Black seed can be irrigated once every 10 days.



 Black seed plants should not be irrigated approximately 20 days before harvest. Black bean seeds are harvested in April when their yellow fruits and basal leaves become dry
Black bean Muslims have known since ancient times the great benefits of black bean, as they were using black bean in the treatment of many diseases, and at present modern scientific studies have proven the benefits of black bean and its effectiveness in the treatment of many health and aesthetic problems,


 from Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him Peace be upon him "you with this black pill, the healing of all disease except poison" and poison is death, narrated by Bukhari and pores and

Characteristics of clay soilsSd

There are many ways to improve the structural properties of the soil, the most important of which are: [7] Soil pH test: plants get nutrients from clay soils when the soil is in 





equilibrium
so its pH is not high and not alkaline, so it should be adjusted to moderate, as pH 6.3 to 6.8 indicates the most appropriate condition For the soil. Adding organic matter: The addition of organic materials helps to stimulate the beneficial microorganisms of the soil, improve the ability of the soil 


to drain water,
and contribute to the provision of natural fertilizer for the soil. Soil cultivation of suitable crops constantly: cultivation of suitable and different soil continuously 





crops, ensures the improvement of the soil through the abundance of basic with organic material,
and is the most appropriate crops in the warmer areas are alfalfa , oats , and
All soils contain mineral particles, organic matter , water, and air, which lead to soil formation, through which the characteristics of the soil are determined .
Soil chemistry: Soils and organic matter are carried on the negative charge. Water dissolves nutrients and chemicals into chemical elements that carry a positive charge, such as potassium , ammonium,
and other elements, thus attracting positive charges to the charges. Negative in clay and organic matter, which 



keeps the necessary elements of the soil from being lost during filtration
. Soil texture: Soil texture is formed by the size of the granules that make up it. The tissue determines the factors that affect the infiltration of water inside the soil. It also affects the permitting of the 




roots of plants to expand. Bad if they are dried . Soil color: Soil color refers to the chemical properties of the soil, and color usually appears on the topsoil and not on all layers of the soil, where the topsoil has a darker color compared to the remaining soil layers,
due to the organic matter that They accumulate on the surface, and most often the soil colors return to their constituents as organic matter refers to black, iron oxides and aluminum refer to red, and silicate of salt refers to white. [4] Soil structure: Soil structure expresses how the pellets are organized in the soil, which appear in 




aggregates.
[5] The size of the clay soil pellets is small and makes it easy to bind together, making excavation or any activity difficult. Clay soils can be easily compressed, preventing the growth of plant
Clay soils face problems while agriculture including tilling or shelf, but it can be used for specific machines for soil erosion and plowing,
except soil wet as it can be difficult to work during these circumstances is due to the strength of the adhesion of the soil in the machines ,





and despite the many problems faced by Mud soils, however, have several advantages

How to grow riceBy

Rice needs fertilizer and
continuous irrigation.Irrigation is one of the most important things that the farmer must supervise to take care 

of this plant.
It is also necessary to get rid of the weeds that grow in the agricultural land, and exterminate insects and pests that may harm the crop, and pay attention to the spread of plant diseases within it. Rice has many enemies in nature: rodents (mice and rats) and insects 




like to feed on it,
and many viruses can infect it dangerously, and farmers use vaccines and pesticides to deal with it. Rice needs a lot of nutrients, such as minerals and others, to grow well,
but the soil in which it grows is normally rich, thanks to its 



permanent
In order to be successful, rice needs a temperate or hot climate , abundant amounts of water, preferably flooded the land during the growing period, rice also needs fertile soil rich in organic materials,
clean and free of weeds, preferably grown in low-lying plains or On the banks of the flood rivers, so that it is easier for the farmer to flood the agricultural land with 




water.
It is essential that the land be level to reduce water losses as much as possible. The appropriate time for rice cultivation is the period from the end of the spring to the beginning of the summer season
Rice cultivation Rice cultivation is widespread in many parts of the world, especially in the hot and temperate regions characterized by water 




abundance,
and the largest country in rice production in the world is China ; [4] Before planting, it is essential to ensure that high-quality seeds are obtained. Seed can increase production by 5 to 20% when 



carefully selected. It is suitable for agriculture, and should not contain seeds from other harmful plants.
The land where seeds are placed very important; the soilThey must be plowed and leveled appropriately in the form of paths, and their soil should be stirred and mixed first, and be ensured that they contain high levels of 




minerals and
The Latin scientific name for rice is Oryza sativa (abbreviated as O. sativa), and the genus that this scientifically follows is also called rice (Latin: Oryza).
Asian, which is grown in China, India, Japan and Thailand, and African rice comes from West and Central African countries such as Nigeria and others
Scientific classification Rice is a type of cultivated plant that man is interested in for its great nutritional and economic value. Many other plants, 




in addition to rice, are important crops for humans because of the precious grains they produce, notably wheat, barley , corn and oats
There are many varieties and strains of rice plants that differ slightly in size, characteristics and the type of grains they produce, but are generally considered to be a short-lived plant. It is not an aquatic plant, but it needs very large quantities of 



water to grow well,
so it is said to be semi-aqueous, [2] and for this reason it is usually planted on the banks of the floodplains or river deltas where the water level is high. When planting rice , plant seeds are placed in paths carved alongside each other and left for a month and a half and then transferred to a field for better care, where the field is permanently submerged with about 5-10 cm of water, and remains so until the time combine
an annual herbaceous plant that is semi-aqueous (growing in very humid 
.
Five meters or more in some species that float on water. Rice beans are white in color, small in size, and look somewhat similar to wheat grains. The origin of rice is not known exactly,
but it is believed that it was first planted in eastern China about 6,000 years

How to grow peanutsBy

harvest Most peanut pods form in September, but their grains need one to six weeks to grow and mature. 
The peanuts are harvested by removing them from the soil using the garden

fork,
collecting the horns that were suspended in the soil and not being taken out with the plant
Flowering and pollination Peanuts reproduce in a rare way; the flowers of the plant appear on the stems above the soil, while the fruits 




arinside the soil;
yellow flowers appear on the small stems, then disappear after pollination to appear bleach flower in the lower leg, and then enter the soil, the fruits begin to form, knowing The crop will not ripen at the same time
Growth and care When the plants reach a length of 15 cm, the task of removing 




weeds around them,
and ventilate the soil, and when they become 30 cm long should be placed a pile of soil around the plant.
[2] Flowering and pollination Peanuts reproduce in a rare way; the flowers of the plant appear on the stems above the soil, while the fruits are inside the soil; yellow flowers appear on the small stems, then disappear after pollination to appear bleach flower in the lower leg,
and then enter the soil, the fruits begin to form, knowing The crop will not ripen at the 





same time, and usually peanuts need three months from planting time to be ready for harvest. [3] harvest Most peanut pods form in September,
but their grains need one to six weeks to grow and mature. The peanuts are harvested by removing them from the soil using the garden fork, collecting the horns that were suspended in the soil and not being taken out with the plant. Dry, moisture free. [2] References Was this article helpful? Yes, no
Planting seeds Seeds can be planted in the period from May to June, but the planting in early May gives a better product in terms of size and 




quantity of seeds,
and must be planted seeds at long distances, and a depth of 2.5-5 cm, and the time of the appearance of the plant on the surface of the ground depending on the type Seeds, temperature and humidity. [

What do I plant in my garden

Green lanscapes The green areas occupy the largest area of ​​gardens in general and may cover up to 70% of the gardens depending on their type, as these areas have benefits and positive effects large,


they contribute to lower temperatures and raise the level of humidity of the air, and increase the rate of oxygen, and reduce environmental gas pollution, In addition to the positive psychological effects it helps to relax the nerves and eyes. 





[4]
Shrubs: It is a wooden plant that grows at a rate of 3-4 meters and is planted in small gardens instead of large trees. It is characterized by the length of its flowering season, its many colors, and its beauty.
It can be planted heavily on a certain pattern to become a form of fences. It should be located in the middle of other plant species, trees and flowers, to give a gradual length and height, which gives a more beautiful view, which are of two types: permanent green shrubs such as dafla, and thuya, A Chinese rose





,
the bushes are consistent Taha leaves as light sentences, and strife. Climbing plants: They are shrubs that do not grow longitudinally but rely on the mechanism of growth on climbing in different forms and ways, such as wrapping on stents or climb and grow 





inside the cracks of buildings, and many are planted in the facades of houses or inside home gardens to give an aesthetic view such as types of climbing roses and jasmine ,
It can be planted to cover some facades and undesirable landscapes. Foreign t
Herbal plants It is one of the most important types of plants grown in the home garden and can be divided as follows: [4] Annuals: Plants that complete their life cycle in one year or one growing season, including winter annual plants that are grown in the autumn and grow and bloom in the spring and die 


in the summer,
including potatoes, beans, lettuce, spinach, and other vegetables, while ornamental plants annuals The winter ones knew the rooster, the broom of paradise, the sunflower, the court. The annual annuals are the plants that are planted in the spring to bloom in the summer ,
such as eggplant, carrots, beans, and melons, and branches of the annual ornamental plants such as chrysanthemum, cloves, and fish mouth. There are also two-yearly plants such as broccoli, cabbage, extension and beetroot. Perennial herbs are herbaceous plants that live for many years without the need to replant 





them.
Flowering bulbs are plants that have a food store under the surface of the soil through which they proliferate, such as daffodils, tulips, anemones, lotus, and pompons. Medical aromatic plants: These plants are of medical and economic importance, where they use volatile oils in various medical treatments,
and their effectiveness is affected by the method of cutting and collecting, and 





the way of drying
Home gardening and the production of some crops are a safe way to obtain safer crops, as they are less susceptible to chemicals, as in some types of plantings on the market that are exposed to various fertilizers and pesticides.
Highlighting the natural aesthetic aspects that dominate ornamental trees, making them give a good and aesthetic appearance to the house and its accessories. Farming in the vicinity of the house and its garden allows for the practice of hobbies and activities unfamiliar to all members of the house, parents and children, each commensurate with the age and inclinations of ripening, irrigation, soil fertilization ,
and coordination of ponds, and work in the plant environment gives a sense of psychological comfort, tranquility, and safety, In addition, the care of family members in the garden helps to increase the ties and familiarity between family 





members
The importance of having a home garden Taking care of the garden of the house means the cultivation and cultivation of many types of plants, trees and different green areas of all kinds in proportion to the quality of the nature of the garden attached to the house,





and highlights the importance of these gardens through some of the following

How to grow jasmineBy

Cultivation of Ful Jasminum sambac is a flower from the olive family, growing in warm

climates.
, It turns pink at maturity, [3] It is also taken into account the need to follow some tips when planting the full, namely: [4] It is preferable to grow foul in rich organic soils , which are easy to drain. Ful should be irrigated with large amounts of water, especially in the summer.
Ful flower needs a medium amount of sunlight with a little shade to grow. It is preferable to trim the flower of the elephant lightly, especially after flowering in order to improve its external 



shape
Jasmine can be cultivated by paying attention to the health conditions of cultivation,
including the following: [2] Light: Jasmine needs light according to the difference of the species. Water: It is best to pay attention to the lack of dryness of the cultivation soil of jasmine even in winter, as the plant is 



in a state of flowering.
Soil: It is preferable to use any soil containing compost, taking care of the soil's ability to drain well. Fertilizer: Light liquid fertilizers are preferred throughout the growing season
Jasmine cultivation There are many different types of jasmine, such as Asian jasmine, characterized by its ability to withstand the 






drought strongly,
and can be grown in the soil through the following method: [1] Prefer to buy jasmine seedlings, and then prepare fertile soil and free from herbs. The distance between the plant and the other should be between 15-30 cm,
it requires two full seasons to grow fully, and prefer to use wet soil. If there is regular rainfall, the plant needs little irrigation. Additional irrigation is rarely 




required.
The fact that the plant is actively growing. Asian jasmine needs pruning once a year, especially in the 



spring,
to obtain an attractive appearance and to reduce diseases as well

بحث حول مكونات التربة تت

يُطلَق مصطلح الحفاظ على التربة على التقنيات والآليات التي تهدف إلى المحافظة على التربة، ويعود فقدانها وفقدان خصوبتها إلى العديد من الأسباب، منها التآكل،






الملوحة، والتلوث الكيميائي، بالإضافة إلى فرط استخدامها، كما قد تشكل بعض الممارسات كالحرق، وأعمال القطع في المناطق الأقل تطوراً سبباً في إزالة الغابات، وتآكل التربة على نطاق واسع، وفقدان مغذياتها، والتصحر في بعض الأحيان، وهناك العديد من الممارسات الزراعية والطرق التي يمكن عن طريقها الحفاظ على التربة، ومنها استخدام مصدات الرياح، والأسمدة الخضراء، ومراقبة نِسَب الملوحة في التربة، وإدارتها، والحفاظ على مستوى الحموضة فيها، ومنع الرعي الجائر، ومشاركة الوعي والمعارف الزراعية، وغيرها من الطرق.[٦









يُعدّ الحفاظ على التربة أمراً بالغ الأهمية، فهي أساس قوت سبعة مليارات نسمة، والوسيلة التي يمكن من خلالها المحافظة على المياه النظيفة، والمساعدة على تنظيم المناخ، وتشكل التربة الصحية ضماناً للإمدادات الثابتة من الغذاء والتنوع البيولوجي، أما التربة التي تفقد عناصرها الغذائية فلا يمكنها دعم المحاصيل والنباتات التي تمنع التصحر، كما يشكل فقدان التربة مؤشراً على انتشار الفقر، وتراجع النمو الاقتصادي.[٥





التربة الطينية من أكثر من 25% من الطين، وتعد تربةً ثقيلة تتميز باستفادتها من المواد الغذائية بشكل كبير، وبقائها رطبة وباردة في الشتاء، وجافة في الصيف، وتحتوي هذه التربة على كميات كبيرة من الماء بسبب وجود الفراغات بين جزيئات الطين. التربة الطمية: تعد التربة الطمية (بالإنجليزية: Silt soil) تربةً خفيفة، ورطبة، وتمتلك معدل خصوبة عالية، ويمكن زيادة تماسك التربة واستقرارها عن طريق إضافة المواد العضوية إليها











تتكون التربة النموذجية من 45% من المواد المعدنية، و20-30% من الماء، و20-30% من الهواء، بالإضافة إلى 5% من المواد العضوية، وعلى الرغم من ذلك تبقى هذه النسب تعميمات فقط، حيث تعد التربة معقدةً وديناميكية جداً، فمن الممكن أن تكون تركيبتها متقلبةً بشكل يومي وفقاً للعديد من العوامل كإمدادات الماء، والممارسات الزراعية.[٣]



خصائص التربة الطينية تت

إضافة المواد العضوية: تُساعد إضافة المواد العضويّة على تحفيز الكائنات الدّقيقة المُفيدة للتّربة، وتحسين قُدرة التربة على تصريف المياه، كما أنّها تُسهم في توفير السّماد الطّبيعي للتّربة.



زراعة التربة بالمحاصيل المناسبة باستمرار: زراعة محاصيل مناسبة ومختلفة للتُّربة بشكل مستمر، حيث يضمن ذلك تحسين التُّربة من خلال وفرة المواد العضويّة الأساسية لها، وتُعد أبرز المحاصيل المناسبة في المناطق الأكثر دفئاً هي البرسيم، والشوفان، وفي الشّتاء وخاصّة في الشّمال تكثُر زراعة القمح، والجاودار. استخدام المهاد: المهاد عبارة عن طبقة من القَش أو البلاستيك التي تُوضع فوق الغِطاء النباتي لحمايته من التآكل والانجراف خصوصاً في فصل الشتاء



هناك العديد من الطُّرق التي تُحسن من الخصائص التّركيبية للتربة، ومن أهمها:[٧] اختبار درجة حموضة التربة: يَحصُل النّبات على المواد الغذائية من التربة الطينية عندما تكون التربة في حالة توازن، بحيث لا تكون درجة الحموضة فيها عالية، وأن لا تكون قلويّة، لذلك يجب تعديلها لتُصبح مُعتدلة، إذ يُشير الرّقم الهيدروجيني من 6.3 إلى 6.8 إلى الحالة الأنسب للتربة



يُشير لون التربة إلى الخصائص الكيميائية التي تتركب منها التربة، ويَظهُر اللون عادةً على التربة السّطحية وليس على جميع طبقات التربة، حيث إنّ التربة السطحية تَحمل لوناً أغمق مُقارنةً بطبقات التّربة الباقية، ويعود ذلك إلى المادة العضوية التي تتراكم على السّطح، وعلى الأغلب ما تعود ألوان التربة إلى مكوناتها حيث إن المواد العضويّة تُشير إلى اللّون الأسود، وتُشير أكاسيد الحديد، والألمنيوم إلى اللّون الأحمر، وتُشير سيليكات الملح إلى اللّون الأبيض.[٤] بُنية التربة (بالإنجليزيّة: Soil structure): تُعبِر بُنية التربة عن كيفية تنظيم الحُبيبات في التربة، والتي تَظهُر على شكل مجاميع،[٥] ويُعد حجم حُبيبات التربة الطّينية صغير مما يجعلها قادرة على الارتباط معاً بسهولة، وبالتالي يَصعُب القيام بعمليات الحفر أو أي نشاط زراعي آخر فيها، إذ يُمكن ضغط التربة الطينية بسهولة مما يؤدي إلى منع نمو جذور النباتات.[٦



تَحمل التربة الطينية، والمواد العضويّة التي تحويها على الشُّحنة السالبة، حيث يقوم الماء بإذابة المواد الغذائية والكيميائية لتصبح عناصر كيميائية تحمل الشحنة الموجبة، مثل البوتاسيوم، والأمونيوم، وغيرها من العناصر، وبالتالي تنجذب الشُّحنات الموجبة إلى الشُّحنات السالبة الموجودة في الطين والمواد العضوية، مما يؤدي إلى الحفاظ على العناصر الضرورية للتربة من الضّياع خلال التّرشيح. نسيج التربة (بالإنجليزيّة: Soil texture): يَتشكل نسيج التربة من حجم الحُبيبات التي تتكوّن منها، ويُحدد النسيج العوامل المُؤثّرة في تسريب المياه داخل التربة، وكما أنّه يؤثر في السّماح لجذور النّباتات بالتّمدُد



تواجه التربة الطينية مشاكل أثناء الزِّراعة بما في ذلك حرثها أو جرفها، إلا أنه يُمكن استخدام آلات محددة لجرف التربة وحراثتها، باستثناء التُّرب المُبلّلة إذ يكون من الصعب العمل خلال هذه الظُّروف ويعود ذلك إلى قوة التصاق التربة في الآلات، وعلى الرغم من المشاكل العديدة التي تُواجهها التربة الطينية إلا أن لديها مميزات عِدّة، فهي تُعتبر بيئة مُستقرة ومناسبة لنمو بعض أنواع النباتات إذ إنها تتمسك بجذور النباتات بشكل جيد.[١][٢





تتكون التربة الطينية من جُزيئات صغيرة جداً يَصل قُطرها إلى أقل من 0.002 مم، حيث تَظهُر بشكل صلب عندما تكون غير مُشبعة بالماء، وبالرغم من أنها تحتوي على المعادن، والمواد العضوية، إلا أنه لا يُمكن استخدامها للزراعة وذلك بسبب أن لديها قابلية للضغط مما يُصَعِّب عملية الزراعة فيها


مفهوم الزراعة التجارية ب

العوامل الرئيسيّة للزراعة التجارية الموقع والنقل:تحتاج الزراعة لوجود أنظمة نقل قريبة من مكان الزراعة، مثل: السفن والشاحنات وغيرها. المناخ:




 حيث يتم تحديد نوع المحصول بناءً على المناخ كالحرارة ومعدلات درجة الحرارة، فالبرتقال على سبيل المثال لا ينمو في المناطق الباردة. المواد الخام: كالأسمدة والبذور. العرض والطلب: في السوق على نوع المنتج



أنواع الزراعة التجاريّة الزّراعة المُكثّفة: نظامٌ زراعيّ تُستخدَمُ فيه كمياتٌ كبيرةٌ نسبياً من رأسِ المال والعمّال ضمن مساحاتٍ صغيرةٍ نسبياً من الأراضي، ويُعمَل بهذا النّظامِ في البُلدانِ التي يؤدي فيها الضغطُ السكانيّ والعمرانيّ إلى تقليل حجم مُلكيّات الأراضي الزراعيّة، ومن الأمثلة على هذا النوع ولايّة البنغال الغربية في الهند. الزّراعة الشاملة: نظامٌ زراعيّ تُستخدَمُ فيهِ كميّاتٌ صغيرةٌ نسبيّاً من استثماراتِ رأس المالِ والعُمّال في مساحاتٍ كبيرةٍ نسبياً من الأراضي الزراعيّة، وأحياناً تُتْرَكُ الأراضي بوراً لتستعيدَ خصوبَتَها، وغالباً ما تُجهَّزُ باستخدامِ المعدّات الميكانيكيّة؛ حيث إنَّ العمالةَ مُكلِفَةٌ للغاية أو قد تكون غير متوفرة، ومن الأمثلة عليها الزّراعة في مناطق تاراي من نيبال الجنوبيّة مثل محاصيل الأرزّ، و قصب السكر، والقمح. المُستعمَرة الزراعيّة: هي مزرعةٌ كبيرة، وغالباً ما توجدُ في بلدٍ استوائيّ أو شبه استوائيّ، وتُزرَع فيها المحاصيلُ للبيع في الأسواقِ البعيدةِ بَدَلاً من الاستهلاك المَحليّ



الفرق بين الزراعة التجارية وزراعة الكفاف تختلف الزراعة التجارية عن زراعة الكفاف، فالزراعة التجاريّة هي تحقيق أكبر قدر ممكن من الأرباح بواسطة إدخال التقنيات الزراعيّة ذات التكاليف الكبيرة، والاستعانة بنماذج التكنولوجيا التي تعمل على توفير العمالة الزراعيّة، بالإضافة إلى إنتاج المحاصيل بواسطة استخدام الموارد الطبيعية والاصطناعية كالأسمدة والبذور المهجّنةُ والرّي ونحو ذلك. أمّا زراعة الكفاف فهي نموذج اقتصادي يعمل فيه أغلب سكان المناطقة الزراعيّة بهدف إطعام أنفسهم ممّا يزرعون، وتحقيق مبدأ ما يُطلق عليه اسم "الاكتفاء الذاتي" وبيع ما يزيد عن حاجتهم



تقوم شركاتٌ زراعيّةٌ كبيرة بالزّراعةِ التّجاريّة؛ نظرًا للتّكاليف العالية سواءً من حيث رأس المال أو تنفيذ العمليات التكنولوجيّة، كما تنتشر الزراعة التجاريّة بشكلٍ أكبر في الدّوَل الصناعيّة المتقدّمة أكثر منها في الدول النّامية، ويُمكِن معالجة المحاصيل الزراعيّة المحصودّة في موقع حصادها



الزراعة التجاريّة الزراعة التجارية هي إنتاجُ وزراعةُ المحاصيلِ على نطاقٍ ومساحاتٍ واسعةٍ من أجل بيعِها، والمقصود بذلك هو التّوزيعُ واسعُ الانتشارِ لبائِعي الجملةِ أو متاجر البيع بالتجزئة

أهمية الزراعة داخل البيوت البلاستيكية ب

زيادة نمو النبات إنّ البيوت البلاستيكية محكمة الإغلاق لذا لا تسمح بنفاذ غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون CO2، 


الذي يعتبر من الغازات الضرورية والمهمة في عملية التمثيل الضوئي للنبات، حيث تتراكم كميات عالية جداً من غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون 



تحت غطاء البيت البلاستيكي، ممّا يؤدي إلى تركيز هذا الغاز بشكل وفير من أجل نشاط الأوراق النامية، وتُعدّ المنتجات الزراعية في هذه البيوت أنظف من المنتجات الأخرى وأقل عرضةً للعفن بسبب إزالة بقع التربة عن النباتات أو الفواكه.[٣



حماية النبات من تقلبات الطقس تحمي البيوت البلاستيكية النباتات من تقلبات الطقس الضارة بالنبات كالرياح القوية والصقيع، ويتمّ صناعة هذه البيوت من الزجاج أو البلاستيك السميك الذي تمّت معالجته كالبولي كربونات (بالإنجليزية: polycarbonate) من أجل الصمود والوقوف في وجه الأمطار الغزيرة


والتغيرات الحادة في درجات الحرارة طوال السنة، وتوفر كذلك البيوت البلاستيكية بيئةً مستقرةً ودافئةً من أجل البدء في زراعة محاصيل الطماطم، والخس، والبصل، والفلفل،



وفي أشهر الصيف الحارة يمكن استخدام مكيفات التبريد والمراوح في هذه البيوت من أجل الحفاظ على أوراق النباتات اللينة والناعمة وحمايتها من التعرض لشمس الصيف القاسية التي تحولها إلى اللون البني، بالإضافة إلى قدرة هذه البيوت على توفير الخضار والفواكه الطازجة المتنوعة في موسم نموها






زيادة الإنتاج والحفاظ على المياه توصل الباحثون من خلال الإحصائيات إلى أنّ إنتاج البيوت البلاستيكية الزراعية أفضل بكثير من إنتاج الحقول الزراعية المفتوحة، حيث إنّ هناك زيادة كبيرة في إنتاج الخضروات ذات الجودة الجيدة في البيوت البلاستيكية،



وتساعد البيوت البلاستيكية على الحدّ من هدر المياه من خلال استخدام ريّ المزروعات بطريقة التنقيط، كما أنّها تُقلّل من تبخر المياه، وتساعد أيضاً الأغطية البلاستيكية على أن تتكاثف قطرات المياه المتبخرة وتتحول إلى مياه لإعادة استخدامها مرةً أخرى، وقد أشار الباحثون إلى أنّ البيوت البلاستيكية


تساهم في حماية التربة من التآكل، والعواصف الترابية، وتساعد كذلك على زيادة دخل المزارعين نتيجة زيادة الإنتاج الزراعي، وعلى التقليل من حدّة الفقر في البلدان النامية


الثلاثاء، 1 أكتوبر 2019

Agriculture toolsBy

The plow is equipped with a number of excavators (seven bushes or more), and the farmer is driving the plow and this machine cuts a lot of time and effort,

and is used as a substitute for many traditional tools such as ax, excavator, cattle, and comb
Modern farming tools Traditional farming tools have evolved into: Automatic plow Once used as cattle (horse, donkey, or cow) in the tilling of land, 


where it consists of a bush (excavator), the peasant directs the cattle in pushing them in digging the ground and preparing
Sickle and hashish The machete is indispensable for cutting plants while harvesting wheat, barley and lentil crops.



 It is also used for cutting long crops and
Comb the ground It is a rectangular piece of iron, has teeth like a comb and used to clean the ground of stones and
Peoples One of the tools used to collect wheat and barley crops is a wooden stick attached to four iron heads, which is used in the thresher, ie picking up the crop and placing it in the
Shovel It is used in digging, lifting and transporting any accumulated material such as dust, sand, snow, gravel, coal, minerals, etc. 



It is very common in soil lifting during agriculture and land preparation
The minkouche is a small tool consisting of a short wooden hand and an iron head, one end in the form of a square or triangle,




 and the other end of U-shaped teeth, and is used to turn the soil and shovel, weeding and cutting wild plants

Planting method at home

Agriculture on rooftops Rooftop farming is a good option in crowded areas and homes where there is no yard or garden.

The roof of the house can be exploited for this hygienic practice,


 provided that the surface of the container weights is filled with dust by consulting an engineer. 



Most buildings can withstand weights. Containers because they are light in weight, and can be planted many types of plants that do not require large depths,



 and withstand sunlight; where the surfaces are more exposed to the sun than the surface of the Earth, for example, pepper, okra and basil, and should avoid the cultivation of root
Plant Care After planting trees and plants must be continuously taken care of and irrigated at the appropriate times, 


and the following steps to take care of them: [7] Maintain irrigation of trees every week or ten days as needed, and may need more times if it is hot, preferably slowly, because rapid irrigation leads to root decay, soil erosion, 



and encourage fungal activity. Supporting the trees by attaching the tree to a pillar and attaching a wide strip around it in the middle, especially in areas prone to winds and storms. Pruning season
Planting method The following steps are followed in planting fruit trees: [6] Make a hole with a width of one meter and a depth of half a meter. 



Mix the organic fertilizer with phosphorus and place it in the hole. Carefully remove the tree from the pot so as not to cut the roots,


 and keep the roots moist while planting. Drop the tree into the hole and fill it with soil. Water the tree with water immediately after planting, 


and keep it moist
Planting fruit trees in the garden of the house Here are some things to consider before planting fruit trees in the garden : [6] The climate of the region is suitable for the type of fruit to be planted; some trees live in areas with cold winters, such as apple trees, pears, cherries and plums, 


while citrus trees need a warm winter, such as orange and lemon trees. Apple trees, pears, peaches and cherries are planted in the spring, with less rainfall and less cold weather.



 Olive, avocado and citrus trees are planted in the fall, while no trees are planted in the summer when it is hot. The soil should be good and not permeable to water
Soil preparation for planting Some steps must be taken before planting, and the following are explained: [4] Clean the ground thoroughly from dirt, gravel,



 roots of old plants and herbs, and remove the rocks that hinder the growth of roots. Break up the soil using a plow or shovel, or by setting fire. Conducting a soil test to measure its pH and knowledge of the nutrients and organic matter it contains. Fertilizing the soil to increase its fertility and compensate for any deficiency of nutrients and organic matter. 



Drill a depth of 30 cm, or as needed. Put a little compost in each hole, then gently drop the seeds or seedlings into the hole and cover them with soil, and a layer of mulch to protect them if necessary
When planting plants, it is necessary to plan well for successful crops without resorting to the use of pesticides. 



Some simple plans and natural methods can be used to combat diseases and epidemics that may affect plantings, and this leads to the production of a good crop, and here are some examples of these methods: [5] Growing a plant that has a strong odor near another that has a weak odor in order to expel some types of insects that may attack crops; such as planting onions near carrots to protect it from carrot flies, and planting basil along with tomatoes to protect them from white flies. 



Sulfates can be added to legumes to remove aphids. Bright roses can be planted alongside plants to attract beneficial insects and bees, which in turn pollinate plants, which increases production, and types of flowers and herbs useful for plants sunflower, coriander, and lavender
Preparation of equipment for agriculture After preparing the area to be planted and determining the types of vegetables and herbs to be planted, 



whether from seeds or seedlings, it is now the turn of processing tools and machinery that will be used in the process of planting.If the area prepared for planting is small enough agricultural tools simple, but if they The area is large, the tractor must be used for plowing and stirring the soil, and then the processing of natural fertilizers that feed the plants well,


 and must protect the surface of the soil from the wind and heavy rain when planting plants for the first time, and that by laying a light layer of mulch; Soil mixed with straw, as well as the need to protect plants from pests by buying materials that control these pests
It is worth mentioning that it is necessary to conduct a study of the land to be cultivated and make sure that it is flat,



 with good soil and free of rocks that may hinder the process of cultivation.It must also be characterized by good drainage of water, and be well exposed to sunlight most of the time

Method of basil cultivationPosted by

harvest Basil can be harvested by removing the leaves from the plant, or the whole plant can be removed if too many leaves are needed ...